Dissecting The Ethics Of Organ Donation: Islamic Bioethics Workshop | June 5 - June 7, 2015

CME PROGRAM

University of Chicago Hospitals

This activity has been planned and implemented in accordance with the essential areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education through the joint sponsorship of APPNA and the Initiative on Islam and Medicine. APPNA is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to present continuing medical education programs for physicians. APPNA designates this program for 15.0 credits in Category 1 of the Physicians Recognition Award of the American Medical Association. Each physician should claim only credit for time actually spent in the educational activity.

CME Program | Dissecting The Ethics Of Organ Donation: Islamic Bioethics Workshop

Friday 05 Jun 2015    9:00 AM 10:30 AM: The Actors and Material of Islamic Bioethics

Aasim Padela   MD, MSc  Assistant Professor of Medicine and Director of the Initiative on Islam and Medicine
Friday 05 Jun 2015    10:30 AM 11:45 AM: Constructing an "Islamic" Bioethics? Critical Concepts from Theology and Law

Aasim Padela   MD, MSc  Assistant Professor of Medicine and Director of the Initiative on Islam and Medicine
Friday 05 Jun 2015    11:40 AM 12:40 PM: Islamic Ethics - From Fiqh to Tasawwuf

Issam Eido  PhD  Visiting Instructor of Islamic Studies and Arabic
Friday 05 Jun 2015    2:00 PM 3:00 PM: Health Risk Assessment: Examining the Reasoning Exercises of Medical Experts and Islamic Legists

Sheikh Omar Qureshi    Principal
Saturday 06 Jun 2015    9:00 AM 10:15 AM: Organ Donation, Compassion and Process

Susan Cochran    Public and Media Relations Coordinator
Saturday 06 Jun 2015    10:15 AM 11:15 AM: Ethical Issues in Living Organ Donor Transplant

Mark Siegler  MD  Lindy Bergman Distinguished Service Professor of Medicine and Surgery
Saturday 06 Jun 2015    11:20 AM 12:20 PM: Islamic Legal Views on Organ Donation: A View From Fiqh Councils

Obadah Ghannam  MBBS  Trustee & Head of Research, Centre for Islam and Medicine
Saturday 06 Jun 2015    12:20 PM 1:20 PM: The Making of Shi’i Fatwas on Transplantation and Organ Selling

Elham Mireshghi     PhD candidate, University of California, Irvine
Saturday 06 Jun 2015    2:30 PM 3:30 PM: Muslim Medical Ethics, Fatwas, and the Diversity of Ulama

Shoaib Rasheed    DO Candidate
Saturday 06 Jun 2015    3:30 PM 4:30 PM: The Moral Experience of Buying and Selling a Kidney

Elham Mireshghi     PhD candidate, University of California, Irvine
Sunday 07 Jun 2015    9:00 AM 10:30 AM: The Role of Muslim Physicians in Islamic Bioethics Discourse

Ahsan Arozullah   MD  Medical Director of Patient Safety and Pharmacovigilance, Astellas Pharma
Sunday 07 Jun 2015    10:30 AM 11:40 AM: Applied Islamic Bioethics: Case Discussions

Elham Mireshghi     PhD candidate, University of California, Irvine
Sunday 07 Jun 2015    11:40 AM 1:00 PM: Wrap-up Session/Conceptual Review and Feedback

Aasim Padela   MD, MSc  Assistant Professor of Medicine and Director of the Initiative on Islam and Medicine

The Actors and Material of Islamic Bioethics


Learning Objectives

At the end of the presentation, participants should be able to:
  • Describe the different disciplinary experts and their goals with respect to producing Islamic bioethics material.
  • Describe the limitations of the extant genre of Islamic bioethics discourse.
  • Identify ways in which to fill in the gaps in the Islamic bioethics discourse.

Aasim Padela, MD, MSc

Assistant Professor of Medicine and Director of the Initiative on Islam and Medicine ,
University of Chicago School of Medicine ,
Assistant Professor of Medicine

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Dr. Aasim Padela is the Director of the Initiative on Islam and Medicine, Assistant Professor of Medicine in the Sections of Emergency Medicine, and a faculty member at the MacLean Center for Clinical Medical Ethics. Dr. Padela holds an MD from Weill Cornell Medical College, completed residency in emergency medicine at the University of Rochester, and received an MS in Healthcare Research from the University of Michigan. His Islamic studies expertise comes via a BS in Classical Arabic from the University of Rochester, seminary studies during his formative years, and continued tutorials with Islamic authorities. His research assesses how religion-related factors affect the health behaviors and medical practices of American Muslim patients and physicians. Dr. Padela also explores how scientific data can work in concert with Islamic moral reasoning and theology to develop a comprehensive, theologically-rooted Islamic bioethics. As a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Clinical Scholar from 2008-2011 he developed a program studying American Muslim health behaviors and healthcare challenges. In 2010, as a Visiting Fellow at the Oxford Centre of Islamic Studies he studied Islamic moral and theological frameworks, and from 2013 to 2015 as a Templeton Foundation Scholar he is conducting a national survey of Muslim physicians’ bioethical attitudes and professional experiences and leading a multidisciplinary working group at the intersection of Islamic theology and contemporary biomedicine.


Constructing an "Islamic" Bioethics? Critical Concepts from Theology and Law


Learning Objectives

At the end of the presentation, participants should be able to:
  • Identify the major sources of Islamic morality and how they relate to an "Islamic" bioethics.
  • Differentiate between Islamic bioethics, Muslim bioethics, and applied Islamic bioethics research.
  • Be able to define a fatwa and the proper usage of fatawa in making bioethical decision.

Aasim Padela, MD, MSc

Assistant Professor of Medicine and Director of the Initiative on Islam and Medicine ,
University of Chicago School of Medicine ,
Assistant Professor of Medicine

View Financial Disclosure Form

Dr. Aasim Padela is the Director of the Initiative on Islam and Medicine, Assistant Professor of Medicine in the Sections of Emergency Medicine, and a faculty member at the MacLean Center for Clinical Medical Ethics. Dr. Padela holds an MD from Weill Cornell Medical College, completed residency in emergency medicine at the University of Rochester, and received an MS in Healthcare Research from the University of Michigan. His Islamic studies expertise comes via a BS in Classical Arabic from the University of Rochester, seminary studies during his formative years, and continued tutorials with Islamic authorities. His research assesses how religion-related factors affect the health behaviors and medical practices of American Muslim patients and physicians. Dr. Padela also explores how scientific data can work in concert with Islamic moral reasoning and theology to develop a comprehensive, theologically-rooted Islamic bioethics. As a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Clinical Scholar from 2008-2011 he developed a program studying American Muslim health behaviors and healthcare challenges. In 2010, as a Visiting Fellow at the Oxford Centre of Islamic Studies he studied Islamic moral and theological frameworks, and from 2013 to 2015 as a Templeton Foundation Scholar he is conducting a national survey of Muslim physicians’ bioethical attitudes and professional experiences and leading a multidisciplinary working group at the intersection of Islamic theology and contemporary biomedicine.


Islamic Ethics - From Fiqh to Tasawwuf


Abstract:


The question of ethics in Islamic studies occupied a number of academic and non-academic works. Most of these works focus on philosophical, spiritual, and Islamic law aspects. This paper attempts to tackle this issue through a historical approach, and to explain the
evolution of Fiqh, and how the Islamic ethics were developed through two different periods, formative and post-formative.

Learning Objectives

At the end of the presentation, participants should be able to:
  • What do Islamic ethics mean in these two different periods, formative and post-formative?
  • What notion of Islamic ethics are fiqh and tasawwuf concerned about? Or what do we mean by Islamic ethics in a fiqh or tasawwuf perspective?
  • In our modern age, could we follow one of these perspectives or should we follow both of them?

Issam Eido, PhD

Visiting Instructor of Islamic Studies and Arabic ,
University of Chicago ,
Divinity School

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Dr. Issam Eido is a Visiting fellow of Islamic Studies and Arabic in the University of Chicago Divinity School during the 2013-2014 academic year. Dr. Eido’s research focuses on the Qur'an in late antiquity, Hadith Studies, and Sufi and Arabic literary and poetic studies. A 2010 PhD graduate of Damascus University, he also served that institution from 2010-2012 as Lecturer in the Department of Quranic Studies and History of Islamic Sciences. In 2012 he was a Fellow of the “Europe in the Middle East/Middle East in Europe” Research program at the Forum Transregionale Studien in Berlin. A skilled teacher of Arabic, Dr. Eido teaches courses in Qur’anic Arabic while at the University of Chicago.


Health Risk Assessment: Examining the Reasoning Exercises of Medical Experts and Islamic Legists


Abstract:


Religious values influence the health behaviors of Muslim patients and the clinical practices of Muslim healthcare practitioners in a myriad of ways including the way they conceive of disease and cure to the particular therapeutics they seek and provide. Accordingly, when Muslims deliberate over medicine their concerns are not confined to the impact of medicine upon physical health, but rather their concerns extend to adherence to religious norms and by extension the moral dimensions and potential afterlife ramifications of the use of medicine. In this presentation we aim to shed light upon the moral evaluation of medicine from an Islamic perspective and compare these reasoning exercises to the conventional medical reasoning. Through a panel presentation involving a Muslim clinician and an Islamic jurist we will work though considerations of risk within the clinical realm and Islamic law using a case that involves infectious risk related to the performance of the Hajj. We will define key terms within the reasoning exercises of the medical expert and the legist and illustrate how each expert evaluates evidence within their discipline. Specifically we will outline how each disciplinary expert would define benefit and harm and thereby risk, discuss levels of evidence and considerations of certainty in the respective expert’s deliberations and discuss how the legist employs medical understandings in their reasoning. Furthermore we will comment on the broader issues at the heart of religion and science dialogue such as ‘occasionalism’ versus ‘causation,’ and trusting in the Divine versus using worldly means to affect healing, in so far as they relate to the reasoning exercises of the medical expert and the Islamic legist. By clarifying the often unspoken and little understood religious dimensions of biomedicine we hope that medical practitioners can better engage their patients to provide more holistic care that not only attends to the psychosocial and physical aspects of illness and treatment but acknowledges and responds to the religious considerations at play as well.

Learning Objectives

At the end of the presentation, participants should be able to:
  • Gain a broad understanding of the religious considerations of Muslims on matters of health.
  • Become familiar with Islamic legal reasoning on medical issues.
  • Understand how medical experts and Islamic jurists apply medical evidence to their assessments of harm and risk.

Sheikh Omar Qureshi,

Principal ,
Islamic Foundation School ,
Doctoral Candidate, Loyola University Chicago

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Omar Qureshi completed his Bachelor's degree at the University of Missouri – Columbia in Microbiology in 1995 and later obtained a M.Ed. in Science Education – Curriculum and Instruction from the same institution. As a teacher in Saudi Arabia, he also studied various Islamic Sciences with Sh. Salman Abu-Ghuddah. He continued his Islamic studies in Damascus, Syria at Ma'had al-Tahdhib wa-l-Ta'lim and privately with local Damascene scholars such as Sh. Hussain Darwish. Currently Omar serves as the Dean of Academics and Instruction at Islamic Foundation School located at Villa Park, Illinois. In addition to teaching, he is pursuing a Ph.D. in Philosophy of Education and Comparative Education at Loyola University in Chicago, where he is focusing on Muslim moral educational philosophy.


Organ Donation, Compassion and Process


Abstract:


Amidst the science and medicine in the highly regulated field of organ donation there is the sometimes forgotten element of compassion.  Compassion is the heart of all religious, ethical and spiritual traditions and is based on the Golden Rule to treat others how you would want to be treated. Within the backdrop of compassion the process and procedures of organ donation will be explained. 

Learning Objectives

At the end of the presentation, participants should be able to:
  • Understand an overview of how many different religions view organ donation.
  • Understand the timetable of how a patient becomes an organ donor.
  • Dispel myths and misconceptions about organ donation.

Susan Cochran,

Public and Media Relations Coordinator ,
Interfaith Outreach Coordinator ,
Gift of Hope Organ and Tissue Donor Network

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Susan Cochran began her career in broadcasting, for 17 years Susan was a news reporter at KMA radio in Iowa.  Susan left her broadcasting career and attended seminary, receiving her Masters in Religion.  While serving as an ordained minister in The Community of Christ denomination, Susan attended a 7 day intensive interfaith program in Toronto, Canada and this prompted a passion for Interfaith Outreach.  Susan joined Gift of Hope 12 years ago, first serving as a Family Support representative, a position, where she was responsible for speaking with the family at the moment of their loved ones death or impending death about giving the gift of life through organ and tissue donation.  Susan recently transitioned from that role into Interfaith Outreach for Gift of Hope in addition to returning to her career roots in connecting with the media.  Gift of Hope is one of 58 federally designated not for profit organ procurement organizations in the United States. Gift of Hope works with 180 hospitals in Illinois and Northwest Indiana and 9 transplant centers to coordinate Organ and Tissue Donation.


Ethical Issues in Living Organ Donor Transplant


Learning Objectives

At the end of the presentation, participants should be able to:
  • To understand the history of kidney transplantation and the history of living donor kidney transplantation.
  • To gain a deeper insight into the ethics of living donor liver transplantation through the story of Christoph Broelsch.
  • To assess the future of living donor kidney transplantation.

Mark Siegler, MD

Lindy Bergman Distinguished Service Professor of Medicine and Surgery ,
Executive Director, Bucksbaum Institute for Clinical Excellence ,
Director, MacLean Center for Clinical Medical Ethics

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Dr. Siegler is the Lindy Bergman Distinguished Service Professor of Medicine and Surgery at the University of Chicago, executive director of the Bucksbaum Institute for Clinical Excellence, and director of the MacLean Center for Medical Ethics. He is also the recipient of the American Society for Bioethics and Humanities Lifetime Achievement Award for his work to improve doctor-patient relationships everywhere.


Islamic Legal Views on Organ Donation: A View From Fiqh Councils


Abstract:


Evidence from the United Kingdom suggests that the shortfall in organ donation from the Muslim community stems, in part, from an ignorance of how Islam views the practice. Numerous ethico-legal resolutions on organ donation have emerged from both international and national councils, including a fatwa in 1995 from the UK Shariah Council, but the ignorance reported in the research remains a barrier for consent amongst many families. This session will use a sample of ethico-legal judgements on organ donation from national, regional and international Fiqh councils to identify the views of Sunni Muslim scholars on the permissibility of organ donation in Islam.

Learning Objectives

At the end of the presentation, participants should be able to:
  • To understand the legal views of some Muslim scholarly Fiqh councils on autograft, allograft and xenograft transplantation.
  • To understand Muslim scholarly legal views on cadaveric organ donation and the definition of death.
  • To understand Muslim scholarly legal perspectives on receiving organs.

Obadah Ghannam, MBBS

Trustee & Head of Research, Centre for Islam and Medicine ,
Honorary Research Fellow, University of Warwick ,
United Kingdom

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After completing his medical degree and intercalated BSc in Management at Imperial College London, Obadah began a series of rotations in medicine, surgery, and psychiatry at the University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire and is now practicing in emergency medicine at the Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust. He is also a Visiting Research Fellow at the Division of Health Sciences at the University of Warwick, reviewing the ethico-legal arguments of Muslim jurists on the practice of smoking and conducting research for a pair of Cochrane reviews in the area of Cardiovascular Disease Prevention. Obadah is studying part-time for an LLM in Medical Law and Ethics at De Montfort University and undertaking a 5 year Islamic studies and advanced Arabic course to further his research interests in Islamic Medical ethics. He is an Education Visitor with the General Medical Council (GMC) and a Clinical & Professional Advisor with the Care Quality Commission (CQC).


The Making of Shi’i Fatwas on Transplantation and Organ Selling


Abstract:


For nearly two decades Iran has implemented the world’s only program for financially incentivized kidney donation. The routinization of kidney selling has in part been made possible by Shi‘i fatwas that have not only permitted the transplantation of organs, but also the receiving of payment for living kidney-donation. In this presentation I will explain the legal reasoning underlying these fatwas and the instrumental role medical doctors and a kidney-patient advocacy NGO played in their formation. Furthermore, I will explain the legal mechanisms through which such fatwas could change in the future, and the practical on-the-ground reasons why they may not.

Learning Objectives

At the end of the presentation, participants should be able to:
  • Understand the Shi‘i perspective on organ transplantation and sales.
  • Appreciate the important role the framing and presentation of scientific facts have in the making of fatwas.
  • Understand the legal mechanism by which Shi‘i fatwas can change to accommodate new evidence.

Elham Mireshghi ,

PhD candidate, University of California, Irvine

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Elham Mireshghi is an anthropologist and PhD candidate at the University of California, Irvine. Her dissertation ethnographically examines the development and implementation of the world’s only regulated and religiously sanctioned program for kidney sales. Her project was funded by the National Science Foundation and the Wenner-Gren Foundation. She has also been awarded the Charlotte Newcombe Doctoral Dissertation Fellowship on Religion & Ethics from the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation. Prior to entering the field of anthropology she received a Bsc. in electrical engineering and computer science from UC Berkeley.


Muslim Medical Ethics, Fatwas, and the Diversity of Ulama


Abstract:


Numerous surveys reveal that Muslims are more likely to hold negative attitudes towards organ donation, and that they are less likely to donate organs. These findings have led health interventionalists to partner with Islamic religious authorities to promote organ donation by means of issuing, or disseminating, Islamic ethico-legal verdicts (fatawa) that judge organ donation to be consonant with the Islamic tradition. While well-intentioned, most of these interventions have not increased Muslim donor rates. In this presentation we attempt to explain this puzzling situation by reanalyzing these efforts through the lens of the theory of planned behavior, and in light of two distinct scholarly imperatives of Muslim religious leaders, the ‘ilmi and the islahi. We will highlight concepts within the Islamic ethico-legal tradition that must be accounted for when attempting to partner with Islamic religious authorities and utilize the tools of ethico-legal tradition, for health behavior change.

Learning Objectives

At the end of the presentation, participants should be able to:
  • Appreciate the role that Islamic religious scholars play for average Muslims that are in the process of making personal bioethical decisions, particularly in the example of organ donation.
  • Recognize that Islamic religious scholars (ulama) are not a monolithic body; rather, they are a diverse group that differ in terms of target audiences, areas of specialization, and roles that they fulfill for the Muslim community.
  • Gain a deeper insight into the ways that religion may influence ethical decision making for Muslims.

Shoaib Rasheed,

DO Candidate ,
West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine

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Shoaib Rasheed is a medical student at the West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine. He earned his bachelors degree with honors from the University of Michigan with a focus on Arabic and Islamic Studies. As an undergraduate, he conducted published research through the RWJ Clinical Scholars Program, as well as an honors dissertation investigating perceptions of organ donation among Muslims. After graduation, Shoaib spent one year continuing his study of Arabic and Islamic Studies at Darul Qasim, a private institute for Islamic studies research and education in Glen Ellyn, Illinois.


The Moral Experience of Buying and Selling a Kidney


Abstract:


Kidney-selling has for the most part been condemned by Western bioethicists and Sunni jurists and made illegal in countries where organ transplantations occur, except in Iran. While kidney-selling is permissible in Iran, and even Shi‘i fatwas do not oppose the making or receiving of a payment for transplantation, the morality of kidney-selling is anything but certain. Drawing on interviews, I will describe and analyze some of the lived experiences of kidney buyers and sellers and the practical and moral concerns that animate their decisions. Furthermore, I will explain how notions of divine blessing, the temporality of suffering and the financial capacity of the organ receiver, among other factors, figure into kidney sellers’ experiences of exploitation and regret. This will demonstrate some of the important contrasts between the actual experiences and moral reasoning of kidney donors and recipients and the assumptions underlying legal (Shi‘i) rulings.

Learning Objectives

At the end of the presentation, participants should be able to:
  • To grasp some of the actual experiences and moral concerns of kidney buyers and sellers in a legalized setting.
  • Appreciate how Islamic notions of divine blessing figure into the moral calculations of buyers and sellers.
  • Understand how lived experiences can contrast with the assumptions of legal jurists.

Elham Mireshghi ,

PhD candidate, University of California, Irvine

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Elham Mireshghi is an anthropologist and PhD candidate at the University of California, Irvine. Her dissertation ethnographically examines the development and implementation of the world’s only regulated and religiously sanctioned program for kidney sales. Her project was funded by the National Science Foundation and the Wenner-Gren Foundation. She has also been awarded the Charlotte Newcombe Doctoral Dissertation Fellowship on Religion & Ethics from the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation. Prior to entering the field of anthropology she received a Bsc. in electrical engineering and computer science from UC Berkeley.


The Role of Muslim Physicians in Islamic Bioethics Discourse


Learning Objectives

At the end of the presentation, participants should be able to:
  • The participant will be able to describe some of the benefits and risks of participating in the current bioethics discourse as a Muslim healthcare provider.
  • The participant will learn medical and Islamic approaches to the following issues: (a) the definition of life and its phases; (b) the use of evidence in decision making.
  • n/a

Ahsan Arozullah , MD

Medical Director of Patient Safety and Pharmacovigilance, Astellas Pharma ,
Board of Directors Member, Darul Qasim ,
Advisory Board Member, Inner-city Muslim Action Network

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Dr. Ahsan Arozullah is currently a medical director in patient safety and pharmacovigilance at Astellas Pharma Global Development. Prior to joining Astellas, he was an Associate Professor in the sections of General Internal Medicine and Health Promotion Research at the University of Illinois at Chicago with research interests including the impact of low health literacy and social support on racial/ethnic disparities in healthcare utilization. He continues to mentor fellows and junior faculty members as a clinical associate professor at the University of Illinois. Dr. Arozullah is a senior student member of the board of directors of Darul Qasim, an institute of higher Islamic learning. He also serves as a volunteer physician and a member of the advisory board for the IMAN (inner-city Muslim Action Network) Health Clinic Initiative, a free health clinic in the Chicago Lawn neighborhood. Dr. Arozullah graduated from Northwestern University Medical School and completed his Internal Medicine residency and Chief Residency at Northwestern as well. Following residency training, he complted a General Internal Medicine Fellowship and Master's in Public Health (MPH) at Harvard  with training in clinical epidemiology and health services research.